Self-Study Guide: Preparing Visually Impaired Students
to Assess and Cross Streets with No Stop Sign or Traffic Signal
Outline / Table of Contents
Section 1: Introduction to Situations of Uncertainty
Page  2: How can we cross at streets and lanes with no stop sign or traffic signal?
Page  3: Crossable Gaps
Page  4: Dedicated to the memory of Dick and Lorraine Evensen . . . The history of realization
Page  5: Using distance vision: Vehicles too fast/Close? Using hearing: "Clear to cross when quiet?"
Page  6: Clear to cross when quiet? - 60 years ago and now
Page  7: "Situations of Uncertainty" -- Yikes!
Page  8: "Situations of Uncertainty" / "Situations of Confidence" -- What are they?
Page  9: Research -- are there really Situations of Uncertainty?
Page 10: Research -- What did we learn from sitting in lawnchairs?
Page 11: So how can we recognize Situations of Uncertainty?
Page 12: Uncertainty Prediction Challenge
Page 13: So how can we recognize Situations of Uncertainty?
Page 14: But aren't there strategies that can assure enough time for crossing these streets?
Page 15: Study Questions
Page 16: What is "Quiet"? -- Varies between and within communities
Page 17: What is "Quiet"? -- Effect of changes in ambient sound
Page 18: What is "Quiet"? -- Effect of slight increase of ambient sound
Page 19: Situations of Uncertainty . . . does it really matter?
Page 20: Another Tragedy -- Can We Learn any Lessons?
Page 21: Commitment to Prepare Students / O&M Best Practice
Page 22: Review
Section 2: Teaching students to recognize Situations of Uncertainty
Page 1: The Big Picture -- Expectations
Page 2: Flow Chart for addressing uncontrolled crossings
Page 3: How to teach someone to recognize Situations of Uncertainty?
Page 4: Determining the Width of Streets by Listening to Traffic
Page 5: Determining the Width of Streets by Listening to Traffic
Page 6: Determine and develop an "intuitive understanding" of crossing time
Page 7: But wait! Before we go on, some important considerations . . .
Page 8: Teaching Students to Compare Warning Times with Crossing Time, and Assess the Situation (was TMAD)
Page 9: How can you be confident that the full range of warning times for approaching vehicles in a given situation is longer than the crossing time?
Page 10: How can we ensure that the "full range of warning times" is longer than the crossing time (and therefore a Situation of Confidence)?
Page 11: Site selection
Page 12: Summary of procedure for teaching students to recognize Situations of Uncertainty
Page 13: Study Questions
Section 3: You are in a [shudder] Situation of Uncertainty -- What Now?
Assess the risk of crossing
Page 1: Assess the risk of crossing
Page 2: Who has the right of way here? -- pedestrian / white cane laws
Page 3: How likely will I be surprised by an approaching vehicle?
Page 4: How likely is it that the unexpected vehicle will hit me?
Page 5:If I am hit, how likely will I be seriously injured or killed? ?
Page 6: Assess the Risk of the Crossing: Putting it all together! - Risk Analysis Checklist
Making a decision
Page 7: Is the crossing safe enough?
Page 8: Decide whether the risk is acceptable - considerations
Page 9: Decide whether the risk is acceptable
Page 10: Consider alternatives when the risk of crossing is not acceptable/preferable
Page 11: Alternatives When Crossing is Too Risky
Page 12: Alternatives: Environmental Modifications to Improve Crossings with No Traffic Control
Page 13: Want to apply this to real situations?
Page 14: Review
Section 4:Teaching students to determine when there is a crossable gap in traffic
Page 1: Skills needed to determine when it's "clear to cross"
Page 2: USING HEARING -- Know what to listen for and "tune in" to the sounds
Page 3: USING HEARING to determine when it's quiet enough to be "all clear" -- is this skill necessary?
Page 4: USING HEARING -- Teaching students to determine when it's "quiet enough," and understand the effect of masking sounds
Page 5: USING VISION -- Visual tasks for crossing streets
Page 6: USING VISION for "all clear:" Knowing what to look for, and seeing them efficiently/reliably
Page 7: USING VISION for "all clear:" Looking left/right -- challenges and strategies with different eye conditions
Page 8: USING VISION for "all clear:" Procedure to train students to look for vehicles while scanning / glancing to each side
Page 9: USING VISION -- When you see traffic at a distance -- do you have time to cross?
Page 10: USING VISION -- is traffic far/slow enough? "Determining Gaps in Approaching Traffic" (was "TMASD")
Page 11: USING VISION -- How to determine how many seconds is "X" seconds?
Page 12: USING VISION -- ALTERNATIVE when you cannot judge whether the traffic is far/slow enough to allow you time to cross
Page 13: USING VISION -- Determine when the traffic is far/slow enough by SCANNING or GLANCING left/right
Page 14: USING HEARING OR VISION -- Which is better to determine when it is clear to cross?
Page 15: USING HEARING OR VISION -- Teaching students to choose vision or hearing to detect vehicles
Page 16: Review
Section 5:Applications! Vignettes, Frequently Asked Questions, and Workshop Suggestions
This section has everything on one main page, including a link to workshop activities.
The topics are:
This offers suggestions for hands-on, feet-in-the-street practice applying what you've learned -- you might give yourself a workshop, following the exercises that participants did in this workshop!
The workshop covers teaching students to: