Table 1 | ||||
Characteristics of the study sites. | ||||
City | Site |
Major street speed limit (mph) |
Major street lanes |
Number of trials |
Kalamazoo | Winchell at Aberdeen | 25 | One lane each way |
150 |
Kalamazoo | Westnedge at West Hopkins Street | 35 | Two lanes one way |
150 |
Maryland | Mount Tabor Road at Byfield Court | 35 | One lane each way |
39 |
Maryland | Old Chapel Road at Chelmont Lane | 30 | One lane each way |
36 |
Table in Paragraph format.
Description: There are 5 main column heads: City; Site; Major street speed limit (mph); Major street lanes; Number of trials
City: Kalamazoo; Site: Winchell at Aberdeen; Major street speed limit (mph): 25; Major street lanes: One lane each way; Number of trials: 150
City: Kalamazoo; Site: Westnedge at West Hopkins Street; Major street speed limit (mph): 35; Major street lanes: Two lanes one way; Number of trials: 150
City: Maryland; Site: Mount Tabor Road at Byfield Court; Major street speed limit (mph): 35; Major street lanes: One lane each way; Number of trials: 39
City: Maryland; Site: Old Chapel Road at Chelmont Lane; Major street speed limit (mph): 30; Major street lanes: One lane each way; Number of trials: 36
Table 2 | ||||||
Rate of yielding for crossing conditions. | ||||||
Condition | Yields |
No yields |
Yield rate |
Increase in yielding over the control (%) |
X^{2} against the control |
p value |
Control | 33 | 47 | .41 | -- | ||
Flag | 40 | 25 | .62 | 21 | 5.91 | .02 |
Vest | 32 | 33 | .49 | 8 | .92 | .34 |
Cane | 48 | 7 | .87 | 46 | 28.76 | < .001 |
Cane wave | 49 | 6 | .89 | 48 | 31.28 | < .001 |
Cane, cane wave, vest | 50 | 5 | .91 | 50 | 33.94 | < .001 |
Table in Paragraph format.
Description: There are 7 main column heads: Condition; Yields; No yields; Yield rate; Increase in yielding over the control (%); X^{2} against the control; p value
Condition: Control; Yields: 33; No yields: 47; Yield rate: .41; Increase in yielding over the control (%): -; X^{2} against the control: ; p value:
Condition: Flag; Yields: 40; No yields: 25; Yield rate: .62; Increase in yielding over the control (%): 21; X^{2} against the control: 5.91; p value: .02
Condition: Vest; Yields: 32; No yields: 33; Yield rate: .49; Increase in yielding over the control (%): 8; X^{2} against the control: .92; p value: .34
Condition: Cane; Yields: 48; No yields: 7; Yield rate: .87; Increase in yielding over the control (%): 46; X^{2} against the control: 28.76; p value: [less than] .001
Condition: Cane wave; Yields: 49; No yields: 6; Yield rate: .89; Increase in yielding over the control (%): 48; X^{2} against the control: 31.28; p value: [less than] .001
Condition: Cane, cane wave, vest; Yields: 50; No yields: 5; Yield rate: .91; Increase in yielding over the control (%): 50; X^{2} against the control: 33.94; p value: [less than] .001
Table 3 | |||||
Results of the logistic regression: yielding rates. | |||||
Data set | B (SE) | 95% CI for odds ratio | Significance | ||
Lower | Odds ratio | Upper | |||
Kalamazoo data | |||||
Constant | 2.52 (.92) | ||||
Model | -.06 (.03) | .90 | .95 | 1.00 | .06 |
Full data set | |||||
Constant | 2.98 (.70) | ||||
Model | -.07 (.02) | .90 | .93 | .97 | .001 |
Note: For the Kalamazoo data, R^{2} = .01 (Cox and Snell), .02 (Nagelkerke), Model X^{2} = 1.98, p = .98. For the overall data set, R ^{2} = .03 (Cox and Snell), .04 (Nagelkerke), Model X^{2} = 2.20, p = .95. |
Table in Paragraph format.
Description: There are 4 main column heads: Data set; B (SE); 95% CI for odds ratio with subheads Lower, Odds ratio, Upper; Significance
Note: For the Kalamazoo data, R^{2} = .01 (Cox and Snell), .02 (Nagelkerke), Model X^{2} = 1.98, p = .98. For the overall data set, R^{2} = .03 (Cox and Snell), .04 (Nagelkerke), Model X^{2} = 2.20, p = .95.
Data set: Kalamazoo data; B (SE): [empty]; 95% CI for odds ratio, Lower: [empty]; 95% CI for odds ratio, Odds ratio: [empty]; 95% CI for odds ratio, Upper: [empty]; Significance: [empty]
Data set: [space] Constant; B (SE): 2.52 (.92); 95% CI for odds ratio, Lower: [empty]; 95% CI for odds ratio, Odds ratio: [empty]; 95% CI for odds ratio, Upper: [empty]; Significance: [empty]
Data set: [space] Model; B (SE): [minus] .06 (.03); 95% CI for odds ratio, Lower: .90; 95% CI for odds ratio, Odds ratio: .95; 95% CI for odds ratio, Upper: 1.00; Significance: .06
Data set: Full data set; B (SE): [empty]; 95% CI for odds ratio, Lower: [empty]; 95% CI for odds ratio, Odds ratio: [empty]; 95% CI for odds ratio, Upper: [empty]; Significance: [empty]
Data set: [space] Constant; B (SE): 2.98 (.70); 95% CI for odds ratio, Lower: [empty]; 95% CI for odds ratio, Odds ratio: [empty]; 95% CI for odds ratio, Upper: [empty]; Significance: [empty]
Data set: [space] Model; B (SE): [minus] .07 (.02); 95% CI for odds ratio, Lower: .90; 95% CI for odds ratio, Odds ratio: .93; 95% CI for odds ratio, Upper: .97; Significance: .001
Table 4 | |||||
Results of the logistic regression: predictors. | |||||
Predictor | B (SE) | 95% CI for odds ratio | Significance | ||
Lower | Odds ratio | Upper | |||
Constant | 2.32 (.95) | ||||
Condition | .18 (.07) | 1.05 | 1.20 | 1.37 | .008 |
Approach speed | -.08 (.03) | .88 | .93 | .98 | .006 |
Time of day | -.05 (.05) | .87 | .95 | 1.05 | .34 |
Type of vehicle | .25 (.23) | .82 | 1.29 | 2.02 | .28 |
Site | .11 (.16) | .81 | 1.12 | 1.53 | .50 |
Note: R^{2} = .05 (Cox and Snell), .07 (Nagelkerke), Model X^{2} = 8.14, p = .42. |
Table in Paragraph format.
Description: There are 4 main column heads: Predictor; B (SE); 95% CI for odds ratio with subheads Lower, Odds ratio, Upper; SignificanceTable 5 | |||||
Results of the logistic regression only for conditions using a long cane. | |||||
Predictor | B (SE) | 95% CI for odds ratio | Significance | ||
Lower |
Odds ratio |
Upper | |||
Constant | 10.56 (2.62) | ||||
Condition | .22 (.17) | .88 | 1.24 | 1.74 | .21 |
Approach speed | -.25 (.08) | .67 | .78 | .91 | .002 |
Time of day | -.32 (.14) | .55 | .73 | .96 | .02 |
Type of vehicle | .17 (.56) | .39 | 1.18 | 3.56 | .77 |
Site | .53 (.40) | .77 | 1.69 | 3.73 | .19 |
Note: R ^{2} = .11 (Cox and Snell), .23 (Nagelkerke), Model X^{2} = 6.07, p = .64. |
Table in Paragraph format.
Description: There are 4 main column heads: Predictor; B (SE); 95% CI for odds ratio with subheads Lower, Odds ratio, Upper; Significance
Note: R^{2} = .11 (Cox and Snell), .23 (Nagelkerke), Model [chi][superscript 2] = 6.07, p = .64.
Predictor: Constant; B (SE): 10.56 (2.62); 95% CI for odds ratio, Lower: [empty]; 95% CI for odds ratio, Odds ratio: [empty]; 95% CI for odds ratio, Upper: [empty]; Significance: [empty]
Predictor: Condition; B (SE): .22 (.17); 95% CI for odds ratio, Lower: .88; 95% CI for odds ratio, Odds ratio: 1.24; 95% CI for odds ratio, Upper: 1.74; Significance: .21
Predictor: Approach speed; B (SE): [minus] .25 (.08); 95% CI for odds ratio, Lower: .67; 95% CI for odds ratio, Odds ratio: .78; 95% CI for odds ratio, Upper: .91; Significance: .002
Predictor: Time of day; B (SE): [minus] .32 (.14); 95% CI for odds ratio, Lower: .55; 95% CI for odds ratio, Odds ratio: .73; 95% CI for odds ratio, Upper: .96; Significance: .02
Predictor: Type of vehicle; B (SE): .17 (.56); 95% CI for odds ratio, Lower: .39; 95% CI for odds ratio, Odds ratio: 1.18; 95% CI for odds ratio, Upper: 3.56; Significance: .77
Predictor: Site; B (SE): .53 (.40); 95% CI for odds ratio, Lower: .77; 95% CI for odds ratio, Odds ratio: 1.69; 95% CI for odds ratio, Upper: 3.73; Significance: .19